Mx genes: host determinants controlling influenza virus infection and trans-species transmission
The human MxA protein, encoded by the interferon-inducible MX1 gene, is an intracellular influenza A virus (IAV) restriction factor. It can protect transgenic mice from severe IAV-induced disease, indicating a key role of human MxA for host survival and suggesting that natural variations in MX1 may account for inter-individual differences in disease severity among humans. MxA also provides a robust barrier against zoonotic transmissions of avian and swine IAV strains. Therefore, zoonotic IAV must acquire MxA escape mutations to achieve sustained human-to-human transmission. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field.